The neodymium magnet is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.
Developed in 1982 by General Motors and Sumitomo Special Metals, neodymium magnets are the strongest type of permanent magnet commercially available. They have replaced other types of magnet in the many applications in modern products that require strong permanent magnets, such as motors in cordless tools, hard disk drives and magnetic fasteners.
It is used in many applications like head actuators for computer hard disks, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), loudspeakers and headphones, electric generators in wind turbines, etc.
These magnets are used as a surgically placed anti-reflux system which is a band of magnets surgically implanted around the lower esophageal sphincter to treat gastroesophageal reflux diseases (GERD). The strength and magnetic field homogeneity on neodymium magnets have also opened new applications in the medical field with the introduction of open MRI scanners used to image the body in radiology departments as an alternative to superconducting magnets that use a coil of superconducting wire to produce the magnetic field.
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